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Exploring and Mapping the American West (Cornerstones of Freedom)

More Information at Exploring and Mapping the American West in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. What is a petroglyph?

A carving or marking on a rock.
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2. Who were the first Europeans to explore and map the American West?
The Spanish.
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3. On what date and from what city did the Lewis and Clark Expedition begin?
May 14, 1804, from St. Louis, Missouri.
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4. Who is Pikes Peak named for?
Zebulon Montgomery Pike.
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5. True or False: Lines of longitude run from north to south, and lines of latitude run from east to west.
True.
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6. What year did the U.S. Geological Survey officially begin mapping the United States?
1879.
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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Boundary: A line or limit marking the end of something, such as a city or a country

Expedition: A journey made for a definite purpose; a group making such a journey

Great Plains: Vast dry grasslands in North America extending from northern Canada to Texas

Route: A specific road or line of travel

Survey: (verb) To find out measurements, position, boundaries, or elevation of a land by measuring angles and distances; (noun) the act of measuring land

Topographical: Relating to maps and landscape

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. What was the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
It was the treaty which ended the Mexican War.
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b. Describe ONE of the following people:
Miguel
Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Marcos de Niza
Estevan
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo
Gaspar de Portolá
Juan Bautista de Anza
Alexander Mackenzie
Thomas Jefferson
Meriwether Lewis
William Clark
Sacagawea
Zebulon Montgomery Pike
Stephen H. Long
John C. Frémont
William H. Emory
Answers will vary.
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c. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers will vary. Read more

d. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about the American West:
New Perspectives on The West (PBS)
Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (PBS)
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (Lone Star Junction)
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (Cabrillo National Monument)
Juan Bautista de Anza (University of Oregon)
Lewis and Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery (PBS)
Lewis and Clark's Historic Trail
U.S. Geological Survey
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Library of Congress)

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The Battle of the Alamo (Cornerstones of Freedom)

More Information at The Battle of the Alamo in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. In what city is the Alamo located?

San Antonio.
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2. True or False: The original name of the Alamo is San Antonio de Valero.
True.
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3. What year did Mexico win its independence from Spain?
1821.
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4. What year did the Texas War for Independence begin?
1835.
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5. What happened on March 6, 1836?
The battle of the Alamo.
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6. What happened at the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836?
Sam Houston's army defeated Santa Anna's army and won the Texas War for Independence.
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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Artillery: Mounted guns, such as cannons

Garrison: Body of troops stationed in a fortified place

Louisiana Purchase: Territory purchased from France by the United States in 1803, extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada

Munitions: Materials used in war, such as weapons and ammunition

Reinforcements: Additional troops

Veteran: A person who has done long service in an occupation or activity

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. What year did Texas become a state?
1845.
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b. Describe ONE of the following people:
William B. Travis
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Davy Crockett
James Bowie
René-Robert Sieur de La Salle
Stephen F. Austin
Sam Houston
Answers will vary.
Read more

c. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers will vary. Read more

d. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about the Alamo:
The Alamo
San Antonio Missions National Historic Park (NPS)
Seige and Battle of the Alamo (Lone Star Junction)
Battle of San Jacinto (Lone Star Junction)
Texas Declaration of Independence (Lone Star Junction)
Sam Houston (Lone Star Junction)
Stephen F. Austin (Lone Star Junction)
James Bowie (Lone Star Junction)
William Barret Travis (Lone Star Junction)

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Asian-Americans in the Old West (Cornerstones of Freedom)

More Information at Asian-Americans in the Old West in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. What year was gold discovered in California?

1848.
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2. How many Chinese immigrated to California between 1848 and 1852?
Approximately twenty-five thousand.
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3. Name and describe ONE of the jobs the Chinese performed in the Old West.
Gold miner, factory worker, servant, business owner, farmer, or railroad worker.
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4. True or False: Most of the Chinese immigrants arrived in the United States at Ellis Island in New York Harbor.
False. Chinese immigrants came by ship across the Pacific Ocean from China to the west coast. Many of them arrived in San Francisco.
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5. Name and describe ONE of the jobs the Japanese performed in the Old West.
Fisherman, lumberjack, factory worker, railroad worker, miner, business owner, or farmer.
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6. What year was the Gentlemen's Agreement signed between President Theodore Roosevelt and Japanese Emperor Mutsuhito?
1908.
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7. Citizens from several Asian countries immigrated to the United States. Name ONE of the Asian countries.
China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, and India.
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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Agriculture: The business of farming and growing crops

Immigrant: A person who moves to a new country to live permanently

Laborer: A person who does difficult, physically exhausting work

Merchant: A person who buys and sells goods, a shopkeeper or trader

Migrant: A person who moves temporarily from one place to another in search of work

Quota: Maximum number of people that may be admitted to a country

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. What date did the railroad tracks of the Transcontinental Railroad meet at Promontory Point, Utah?
May 10, 1869.
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b. What was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?
A law passed by the United States Congress which prohibited all Chinese laborers from entering the United States.
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c. Describe ONE of the following laws:
U.S. Naturalization Law of 1790: A law restricting citizenship to white people.
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Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882: A law passed by the United States Congress which prohibited all Chinese laborers from entering the United States and did not allow Chinese men living in the U.S. to send for their families. Read more

Gentlemen's Agreement (1908): Agreement signed by President Theodore Roosevelt and Japanese Emperor Mutsuhito in 1908. Read more

Immigration Act of 1924: Law passed by the United States government prohibiting the entry of all Asians. Read more

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952: Law passed by the United States government reopening Asian immigration in a limited way. Read more

d. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers will vary. Read more

e. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about Asian-Americans in the Old West:
History of Chinese Americans in California (NPS)
History of Japanese Americans in California (NPS)
Chronology of Asian American History (MIT)
Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month: May, 2002 (NPS)
Locke and Walnut Grove: Havens for Early Asian Immigrants in California (NPS)
Asian American Journalist Association
Asian Americans for Community Outreach (San Francisco, CA)

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The Pony Express (Cornerstones of Freedom)

More Information at The Pony Express in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. The Pony Express ran between which two cities?

St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California.
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2. Who started the Pony Express?
William H. Russell, William B. Waddell, and Alexander Majors.
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3. What date did the Pony Express begin?
April 3, 1860.
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4. Name ONE of the 120 relay stations along the Pony Express Route.
Some of the 120 relay stations are: St. Joseph, Marysville, Ft. Kearney, Gothenburg, Julesburg, Mud Springs, Ft. Laramie, Sweetwater, Salt Lake City, Ruby Valley, Stillwater, Carson, Sportsman's Hall, Placerville, Folsom, and Sacramento.
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5. What was the name of the mail bag used by the Pony Express riders?
A mochila.
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6. True or False: Buffalo Bill Cody rode for the Pony Express.
True.
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7. When did the Pony Express end?
November, 1861.
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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Invest: To give money to a company in hope the company will be successful

Outpost: A branch of an organization separate from the main group

Promoter: One who tries to bring success to a cause by spreading news of its value

Spur: A pointed piece of metal worn on a horse rider's boot heel; when the rider "spurs" the horse (or kicks it with the spurs), the horse gallops faster

Stagecoach: A horse-drawn vehicle carrying passengers and mail

Stamina: The ability to stand up to harsh conditions

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. Who was the first Pony Express rider?
John "Johnnie" Frye.
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b. How did writer Mark Twain describe the sight of a Pony Express rider as seen from a stagecoach?
Answers may vary.
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c. In March, 1861, the Pony Express carried which President's Inaugural Address to California in seven days and seventeen hours?
President Abraham Lincoln.
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d. List the factors leading up to the end of the Pony Express.
The cross-country telegraph, the arrest of promoter William Russell, and the transcontinental railroad.
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e. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers may vary.
Read more

f. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about the Pony Express:
Pony Express National Historic Trail (NPS)
Pony Express Museum (St. Joseph, Missouri)
Pony Express Information (American West)
Pony Express Home Station

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