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2003 | Apr-Dec, 2002 | Jan-Mar, 2002 | Sep-Dec, 2001 | Jun-Aug, 2001 | Feb-May, 2001

 

 
2003:
Q: Where was Martin Luther King, Jr. born?
A: Atlanta, Georgia. Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929. He was the second of three children. King was one of the greatest Civil Rights leaders during the 1950's and 1960's. Four days after King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, legislation was introduced providing for a Martin Luther King, Jr. Federal Holiday. In 1983, the bill was signed establishing the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Holiday, and it was first observed on January 20, 1986. Did you know the King Holiday is celebrated on the 3rd Monday of every January?
>>Read about Martin Luther King, Jr.
>>Read about Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
>>Browse Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Bookstore
>>View Photos of Martin Luther King, Jr.
>>Visit Links for Martin Luther King, Jr.

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September, 2003:
Q: Which of the following spacecrafts have flown by Jupiter?
a) Galileo
b) Ulysses
c) Cassini
d) All of the above
A: d) All of the above. Did you know seven spacecrafts have flown by Jupiter? They are Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini.
Pioneer 10 was launched on March 2, 1972, on top of an Atlas/Centaur/TE364-4 launch vehicle. It was the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt and reach the outer solar system. Its primary mission was to directly observe and photograph Jupiter and its moons, and to take measurements of Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation environment. Pioneer 10 passed by Jupiter on December 3, 1973, and took the first close-up images of Jupiter. Did you know these measurements were crucial in designing the later Voyager and Galileo spacecrafts? Currently, Pioneer 10 is heading into Interstellar Space. Did you know it is the second farthest human-made object in space? Voyager 1 is the farthest. Read More.
Pioneer 11 was launched on April 5, 1973, on top of an Atlas/Centaur/TE364-4 launch vehicle. It was the second spacecraft to visit Jupiter and the outer solar system. Pioneer 11 passed by Jupiter on December 2, 1974, and took photographs of the Great Red Spot, made the first observation of Jupiter's polar regions, and determined the mass of Callisto (one of Jupiter's Moons). Next, Pioneer 11 became the first spacecraft to visit Saturn. It encountered Saturn on September 1, 1979. Did you know it took the first close-up pictures of Saturn and discovered two small moons and an addition ring? In November, 1995, contact was lost with Pioneer 11. Read More.
Voyager 1 was launched on September 5, 1977, from Cape Canaveral, Florida, aboard a Titan-Centaur expendable rocket. Its primary mission was to make a close flyby of Jupiter and Saturn. Its extended mission is to explore the Solar System beyond the outer planets to the outer limits of the Sun's sphere of influence and possibly beyond. It is called the Voyager Interstellar Mission. Did you know Voyager 1 became the most distant human-made object in space in 1998? Read More.
Voyager 2 was launched on August 20, 1977, from Cape Canaveral, Florida, aboard a Titan-Centaur expendable rocket. (It was launched before Voyager 1). Its primary mission was to make a close flyby of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Its extended mission is to explore the Solar System beyond the outer planets to the outer limits of the Sun's sphere of influence and possibly beyond. It is called the Voyager Interstellar Mission. Read More.
Galileo was launched on October 18, 1989, from Cape Canaveral, Florida, aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. Its mission is to study Jupiter and its moons in more detail than any previous spacecraft. Galileo arrived at Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Did you know its mission will end with a controlled impact into Jupiter on September 21, 2003? Read More.
Ulysses was launched on October 6, 1990, aboard Space Shuttle Discovery. Its mission is to explore the Sun's north and south poles. Ulysses passed Jupiter on February 8, 1992. Did you know it used Jupiter's large gravitational field to accelerate it out of the ecliptic plane so it could reach high latitudes? Read More.
Cassini was launched on October 15, 1997, from Cape Canaveral Air Station, Florida, aboard the Titan IV-B/Centaur launch vehicle. Its mission is to get a better understanding of Saturn, its rings, its magnetosphere (a vast bubble of charged particles surrounding the planet), its principal moon Titan, and its other moons or "icy satellites." In December, 2000, both the Cassini and Galileo spacecrafts observed Jupiter during the Jupiter Millennium Flyby. It is unusual to have two spacecrafts on separate missions observing the same planet (other than the Earth), at the same time, from a close range. On July 1, 2004, Cassini will enter Saturn's orbit. Did you know Cassini will encounter Saturn after traveling 2 billion miles for over 6 years? Read More.
>>Read about missions to Jupiter
>>Visit the JPL Photo Gallery - Galileo

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August, 2003:
Q: At the time of the American Revolution there were thirteen American Colonies. Name them.
A: New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Did you know the colonies were divided into three regions called New England, Middle Colonies, and the South? New England was made up of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The Middle Colonies included New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. The South consisted of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
>>Read about the American Revolution
>>Browse the American Colonies Books
>>From Your Page: April, 2003

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July, 2003:
Q: Which of the following locations was NOT part of the fighting during the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg?
a) Little Round Top
b) The Wheat Field
c) The Peach Orchard
d) Fort Sumter
A: d) Fort Sumter. Fort Sumter marked the beginning of the American Civil War. It was fought from April 12 to April 14, 1861, in Charleston, South Carolina.
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The Confederate army was led by Robert E. Lee, and the Union army was led by George G. Meade.
Day One: On July 1, the Confederate army met the Union army west of Gettysburg. They fought at McPherson's Ridge, the Railroad Cut, and McPherson's Woods. The Confederate army pushed the Union army back through the town. The armies' lines formed a "fishhook." The Confederate army was located in a "fishhook" along Seminary Ridge, and the Union army was located in a "fishhook" along Cemetery Ridge.
Day Two: On July 2, the Confederate army confronted the Union army at Little Round Top, Big Round Top, Devil's Den, the Wheat Field, the Peach Orchard, Cemetery Ridge, and Culp's Hill. The Confederate army gained some territory, and then fell back to its original line along Seminary Ridge.
Day Three: On July 3, fighting continued at Culp's Hill in the morning. In the afternoon, the Confederate artillery began a 150-cannon barrage on the Union line located on Cemetery Ridge. The Confederate army then marched across the one mile open field towards the clump of trees marking the center of the Union army's position. This charge is known as Pickett's Charge. The two armies met at the Angle on Cemetery Ridge. This position is known as the High Water Mark. The Union army held off the assault, and the Confederate army fell back.
After three days of fighting, the Confederate army retreated from the battlefield, and the Union army won the battle. As both armies left the field, over 61,000 men were dead or wounded. The Battle of Gettysburg was the bloodiest battle of the Civil War.
>>The Papa Tour stops at Gettysburg
>>Read about the Civil War
>>If You Lived at the Time of the Civil War

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June, 2003:
Q: When did Ben Franklin perform his kite and key experiment which proved lightning is electricity?
a) January, 1706
b) June, 1752
c) July, 1776
d) April, 1790
A: b) June, 1752. Ben had a theory that lightning is electricity, and he performed an experiment to prove this theory in June, 1752. Ben made a special kite made out of silk. He flew this kite during a storm. Ben noticed parts of the string standing up (like our hair stands up when there is static electricity in the air). When Ben touched the kite, he got a shock. This shock proved lightning is electricity. Luckily, the shock did not harm Ben.

Do the other dates sound familiar? If so, here is why:
Ben was born in January, 1706.
The Declaration of Independence was adopted by all the colonies in July, 1776.
Ben died in April, 1790.
>>Read about Ben Franklin
>>Read about the times in which Ben Franklin lived
>>Browse Ben Franklin's Books
>>View Photos of Ben Franklin

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May, 2003:
Q: Which of the following was the goal of the Lewis & Clark Expedition?
a) Find the Fountain of Youth
b) Explore the Seven Cities of Gold
c) Explore the North Pole
d) Find a water route across America to the Pacific Ocean
A: d) Find a water route across America to the Pacific Ocean. Before Thomas Jefferson became president, he tried three times to organize expeditions to the land west of the Mississippi River. In 1803, Jefferson became President of the United States, and he formed this expedition. The official name of the expedition was the Corps of Discovery. It was led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. The goal of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was to find a water route across America to the Pacific Ocean. As Jefferson stated, the aim of the expedition would be to explore the Missouri River to find "the most direct and practicable water communication across the continent for purposes of commerce."
Sacagawea was a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. She served as an interpreter, diplomat, and peace symbol.
Did you know Juan Ponce de León tried to find the Fountain of Youth, Francisco Coronado looked for the Seven Cities of Gold, and Henry Hudson searched for a passage from England to the Far East through the North Pole? Read more about these explorers in the
IMA Hero™ Explorers Reading Program.
>>Read about the Lewis and Clark Expedition
>>Browse the Lewis and Clark Books
>>Read about Sacagawea
>>Browse Sacagawea's Books

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April, 2003:
Q: At the time of the American Revolution there were thirteen American Colonies. Name them.
A: New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Did you know the colonies were divided into three regions called New England, Middle Colonies, and the South? New England was made up of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The Middle Colonies included New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. The South consisted of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
>>Read about the American Revolution
>>Browse the Colonial Times Books
>>Browse Books about these 13 States

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March, 2003:
Q: True or False: Cesar Chavez founded the United Farm Workers.
A: True.
In 1962, Cesar Chavez founded the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA).
In 1966, the NFWA merged with the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC). The new organization was called the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC).
In early 1972, the UFWOC received its charter from the AFL-CIO, and it became a full-fledged union. In 1973, the UFWOC changed its name to the United Farm Workers (UFW).

>>Read about Cesar Chavez
>>Browse our Cesar Chavez' Books
>>View Photos of Cesar Chavez
>>Visit Cesar Chavez Links

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February, 2003:
Q: What did Rosa Parks do on December 1, 1955?
A: Rosa Parks refused to move to the back of a Montgomery bus. In the 1940's, Rosa had joined the NAACP, an organization to help end discrimination against African-Americans. The public bus system in Montgomery, Alabama, was just one example of how African-Americans were discriminated against. African-Americans were only allowed to sit in the back of the bus or they could sit in the middle section as long as no white passengers were standing. Some bus drivers made African-American passengers board the front of the bus to pay, and then made them exit the bus to re-board through the back door. Sometimes the buses would leave before the passengers could re-board. This happened to Rosa in 1943. Bus segregation continued. On Thursday, December 1, 1955, Rosa was sitting in the middle section of a bus. When the bus began to fill up, the driver told Rosa to move to the back of the bus. Rosa refused to move and was arrested. This led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the end of segregation on public buses.

>>Read about Rosa Parks
>>Visit Rosa Parks' Links
>>Browse Rosa Parks' Books

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January, 2003:
Q: In which of the following battles did Robert E. Lee NOT participate?
a) Fort Sumter; b) Second Manassas; c) Fredericksburg; d) Chancellorsville

A: a) Fort Sumter. Fort Sumter was fought from April 12 to 14, 1861. This battle marked the beginning of the American Civil War. At the time of Fort Sumter, Virginia had not seceded from the Union, and Robert E. Lee was still a member of the U.S. Army. When Virginia seceded on April 17, 1861, Robert E. resigned from the U.S. Army because he felt loyal to his home state of Virginia. Robert E. went on to become a brilliant leader for the Confederate States of America. He won great victories at Second Manassas (August 28-30, 1862), Fredericksburg (December 13, 1862), and Chancellorsville (May 1-4, 1863). With the help of his generals, Robert defeated the Union Army for four years.
>>Read about the Civil War in our Reading Program
>>Read about Robert E. Lee
>>Read about the times in which Robert E. Lee lived
>>Browse Robert E. Lee's Books
>>View Photos of Robert E. Lee

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